The Western Cape Liquor Authority (WCLA) manage the micro-manufacturing and sale of liquor in the Western Cape.

There are four types of liquor licences:

·      Micro manufacturing on and off consumption – a licence for the micro-manufacture and sale of liquor for use both on and off the premises where the liquor is sold.

·      Consumption on – a licence for the sale of liquor for use on the premises where the liquor is sold.

·      Consumption off – a licence for the sale of liquor for use off the premises where the liquor is sold.

·      Consumption on and off – in exceptional circumstances, a licence for the sale of liquor for use both on and off the premises where the liquor is sold.


In order to apply for a liquor licence in the Western Cape you will need the following documents, required by the WCLA:

·      Completed application forms, typed on A4 size paper (NLA 1 form)

·      A certified copy of your identity document

·      If you’re not South African a copy of your passport and business trading permit

·      The complete floor plan of your premises

·      Site plans of the premises

·      Description of your premises

·      Colour photographs of your premises

·      Written motivations to support your application

·      Zoning certificate or a copy of a planning application submitted to the municipality

·      Proof of payment of application fee


Your applications must be hand delivered, posted.

After submitting all your documents, you need to display a notice about your application to the public in English, Afrikaans and Xhosa.

If you receive any feedback for or against your application, you can give to the Designated Liquor Officer (DLO) within 42 days after you’ve put up your notice.

After completing the above, the Liquor Licencing Tribunal (LLT) will communicate their decision about your application.


It is important to know that you cannot apply for a liquor licence if you:

·      Have been sentenced to jail, without the option of paying a fine, within five years prior to the application.

·      Have been declared unfit to hold a liquor licence, within 5 years prior to your application.

·      Were the holder of any liquor licence that was cancelled within a period of twelve months prior to your application.

·      Are unable to pay your debts

·      Have a mental illness


The definition of the word dismissal according to google is the act of ordering/allowing someone to leave; or the act of treating someone as unworthy of serious consideration or rejection.
According to The Labour regulations Act everyone has the right not to be unfairly dismissed. Dismissal is fair if the specific person has reached retirement age; or the specific needs of the job are not being met.


Businesses large and small are under threat from increasingly aggressive and brutal ransomware attacks. Loss of access too critical files, followed by a demand for payment can cause massive disruption to an organisation’s productivity. But what does a typical attack look like? And what security solutions should be in place to give the best possible defense?

Ransomware – a brief introduction
Ransomware is one of the most widespread and damaging threats that internet users face. Since the infamous Crypto Locker first appeared in 2013, we’ve seen a new era of file-encrypting ransomware variants delivered through spam messages and Exploit Kits, extorting money from home users and businesses alike.
The current wave of ransomware families can have their roots traced back to the early days of Fake AV, through “Locker” variants and finally to the file-encrypting variants that are prevalent today. Each distinct category of malware has shared a common goal – to extort money from victims through social engineering and outright intimidation. The demands for money have grown more forceful with each iteration. And the financial consequences can be severe. The Hollywood Presbyterian Medical Centre reportedly paid 40 Bitcoins (R351 778) to regain access to its files, while the Kansas Heart Hospital despite paying an undisclosed sum, was faced with a second ransom demand and not given access to all of its files.


In the case Kievits Kroon Country Estate (Pty) Ltd v Johanna Mmoledi & Others 2014 (1) SA 585 (SCA) the credibility of a note from a traditional healer was weighed against a note from a medical practitioner.

In this case Mrs. Mmeledi was dismissed for absconding from work without permission due to “premonitions from ancestors”. What this means was that she believed she saw visions from her ancestor telling her to pursue a course in traditional healing.


Around 10:30 on the morning of Thursday 11 August a truck drove over the entire front section of a learner driver’s car in Atlantis Cape Town. Both the learner and the licence examiner were killed in this horrific accident

Lieutenant Colonel Andre Traut told News 24 on Friday that the circumstances surrounding the accident are being treated as a culpable homicide case. Read More

In the South African legal system we do not make use of  different degrees of murder. Our criminal law regime differentiate between murder and culpable homicide. Murder can be described as  the intentional killing of a human being. Culpable homicide, on the other hand, can be defined as the negligent killing of a human being. 
Sometimes it is necessary for the law to punish people for acts they did not subjectively foresee. If someone acts in a manner that is objectively unreasonable, even though they believe otherwise, and the conducts leads to the death of another person, he/she is negligent and guilty of culpable homicide. 
A Culpable homicide conviction, due to a motor-vehicle collision, can only be successful if the prosecution proves, beyond reasonable doubt, that the driver was negligent and that this negligence was the cause of, or contributed to, the death.


The Divorce Act stipulates that the two grounds for divorce is - irretrievable breakdown of the marriage/relationship or unconsciousness/mental illness of the other party. Both these grounds embodies the general principle that a marriage can come to an end when the consortium, which is the core of the marriage relationship, come to an end or no longer exist between the parties.


There is of course certain legal matters which you and your fiance must clarify before you say “I do”. One is your financial affairs and the question whether you want an ante-nuptial contract.
In South Africa you can get married in community of property and out of community of property with or without the application of the accrual system.

Marriage in community of property:  
In South Africa the automatic matrimonial property regime is the marriage in community of property. Therefore, if you do not enter into an ante-nuptial contract prior to the date of your marriage, you will have entered into a marriage in community of property. All property at date of marriage as well as all property acquired after date of marriage will fall into a communal joint estate including any debts incurred by either spouse. Each spouse owns a fifty percent undivided share in the assets and liabilities of the communal joint estate.


The criminal justice process begins when a crime is committed and is either discovered by the police, or a charge is laid by a complainant. Becoming the victim of a crime can be a very traumatic experience. Having to then deal with the system can also be a troublesome and frustrating task and having some knowledge of what to expect we hope will greatly alleviate additional trauma.

With this in mind we will deal with it under three headings, The Complainant, The Witness and The Accused


South African criminal courts operate on an adversarial system which means that there will always be two opposing parties litigating, with the magistrate or judge sitting as neutral arbitrator or umpire. The District and Regional courts are presided over by Magistrates and the High Courts by Judges. District and Regional Courts are where most cases are heard, so we have begun with these lower courts.


Crime is a constant and increasing blot on the landscape of the relatively new South African democracy. It affects all sectors of society and does not discriminate on grounds of race, gender, religion, political affiliation or economic status. Anyone who lives in South Africa has a fairly reasonable chance of having to interact, at some time, with the Criminal Justice System, either as a victim or witness, or maybe even as an accused person.